Aircraft design the NASA way

I have not said anything about it here but my thesis is about a VTOL aircraft. That stands for Vertical Take Off and Landing aircraft. If this is nonsense to you, don’t worry. You can just watch Jeremy Clarkson explain it in TopGear fashion in the video bellow.

Basically it combines a copter and a plane allowing to take off and land without the need for an airstrip like a copter but cruise at the speed of a plane providing autonomy. It’s a rad concept.

But how does one design and build a thing like that?